The authorship and publication
In parallel with Hakluyt's The Famous Voyage of Sir Francis Drake..., an insert added to the 1589 edition of Principal Navigations

Letter, Drake to Elizabeth. Dedication (with emphasis):
Also note nautical and navigational terms

To the Queen's moft excellent Maiefty, my moft Dread Souereign: Madam,

Seeing divers others have diuerfely reported and written of these voyages and actions which I have attempted and made, euery one endeauoring to bring to light whatfoeuer inklings or coniectvres they have had - whereby many vntrvths have been published, and the certain trvth concealed - as I have thouaht it neceffary myfelf, as in a card to prick the principal points of the counfel taken, attempts made and svccess had, during the whole covrse of my employment in thefe seruices againft the Spaniard, not as fetting fail for maintaining my repvtation in men's iudgment, but only as fitting, at helm. if occafion fhall be, for condvcting like actions hereafter. . . So I have accovnted it my dvty to prefent this difcovrfe to Your Maiefty, as of right, either for itfelf, being the firft frvits of yovr fervant's pen, or for the matter, being feruice done to Your Majesty by your poor vaffal against your great enemy at such times, in fuch places, and after fvch fort as it may seem ftrange to thofe that are not acquainted with the whole carriage thereof, but will be a pleafing remembrance to Your Highneff, who take the apparent height of the Almighty's fauor towards you by thefe events, as trveft instrvments - hvmbly fvbmitting myfelf to yovr graciovs cenfure, both in writing and prefenting, that pofterity be not depriued of fuch help as may happily be gained hereby, and ovr prefent age, at leaft may be fatisfied in the rightfulneff of these actions, which hitherto haue been filenced; and yovr feruant's labor not seem altogether loft, not only in trauel by fea and land, but alfo in writing the report thereof, a work to him no less trovblefome yet made pleafant and fweet in that it hath been is, and fhall be for Yovr Maiefty's content; to whom I haue deuoted myfelf, liue or die. 

Francis Drake. Ianuary 1, 1592

"It wovld greatly profit Drake's countiemen if it might pleafe Sir Francis to write a perfect Diarie of his whole voyage...and thereby deserue immortal fame...of all which things, I dovbt not but that he hath alreadie written, and will pvblish the fame when he fhall thinke most meet."

Thomas Blunderville, M. Blunderville, His Excercises, London, 1594.

1628. Title page (with emphasis):

Being his next voyage to Nombre.
de Dios formerly imprinted
Carefully collected out of the notes of Mafter
FRANCIS FLETCHER Preacher in this im-
ployment, and divers others his followers in the same

Offered now at laft to publique view, both for the honour of
the actor, but efpecially for the ftirring vp of heroick fpirits,
to benefit their Countrie, and eternize their names
by like nobel attempts

1628. Dedication (with emphasis):

obert Earle of Warwicke.

Right Honorable,

FAme and enuie are both needleffe to the dead becaufe vnknowne, fometimes dangerous to the living when too well knowne: reafon enough that I rather chufe to fay nothing, then too little, in the praife of the deceased Author, or of your Lordship my defired fautor. Columbus did neatly check his emulators, by rearing an egge without affiftance. Let the flighter of this voyage applie. If your Lordship vouchfafe the acceptance, 'tis yours, if the Reader can pricke out either vfe or content, 'tis his, and I am pleafed, and your Lordships fauor the private aime, of Your humbly deuoted, FRANCIS DRAKE [the second, Bart.]

For a detailed history of the authorship and publication of The World Encompassed and The Famous Voyage, see Brian Kelleher: Drake's Bay, Unraveling California's Great Maritime Mystery, Day Publishing, 1997

And Sir Francis Drake and the Famous Voyage, (J. W. Thrower, editor), University of California Press, 1984 in sections by John H. Parry and David B. Quinn.

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My article on Drake's navigation.

The World Encompaffed
Hakluyt's The Famous Voyage
The Course from Guatalco

From Guatulco we departed the next day following, viz. Aprill 16. fetting our courfe directly into the fea: whereon___

Upon this refolution, he began to thinke of his beft Way to the Moluccaes, and finding himfelfe where he nowe was becalmed, he fawe, that of neceffitie he muft be forced to take a Spanifh courfe. namely to faile fomewhat Northerly to get a wind. We therefore fet faile,___

___we fayled 500. leagues in longitude, to get a winde: and betweene that and Iune 3. 1400. leagues in all,___

___and failed in longitude 600. leagues at the leaft for a good Winde, and thus much we failed from the 16. of Aprill, till the 3. of Iune.

___till we came into 42. deg. of North latitude,___

The 5. day of June, being in 42.' degrees towards the pole Arctike,___

The Search for a Northern Passage

___where in the night following, we found fuch alteration of heate, into extreame and nipping cold, that our men in generall, did grieuoufly complaine thereof; fome of them feeling their healths much impaired thereby, neither was it, that this chanced in the night alone, but the day following carried with it, not onely the markes, but the ftings and force of the night going before; to the great admiration of vs all, for befides that the pinching and biting aire, was nothing altered; the very roapes of our fhip were ftiffe, and the raine which fell, was an vnatural congealed and frozen fubftance, fo that we feemed rather to be in the frozen Zone, then any way fo neere vnto the fun, or thefe hotter climatef.

___we found the aire fo colde, that our men being greeuioufly pinched with the fame, complained of the extremitie thereof,___

Neither did this happen for the time onely, or by fome fudden accident, but rather feemes indeed, to proceed from fome ordinary caufe, againft the which the heate of the fun preuailes not, for it came to that extremity, in fayling but 2. deg. farther to the Northward in our courfe: that though fea-men lack notgood ftomaches, yet it feemed a queftion to many amongft vs, whether their hands fhould feed their mouthes, or rather keepe themfelues within their couerts, from the pinching cold that did benumme them. ___


___Niether could we impute it to the tenderneffe of our bodies, though we came lately from the extremitie of heate, by reafon whereof we might be more fenfible of the prefent cold: infomuch as the dead and fenceleffe creatures, were as well affected with it as ourfelues, our meate as foone as it was remooued from the fire, would prefently in a manner be frozen vp; and our ropes and tackling, in few dayes were growne to that ftiffeneffe, that what 3. men afore were able with them to performe, now 6. men with their beft ftrength, and vttermoft endeauour, were hardly able to accomplifh: whereby a fudden and great difcouragement feafed vpon the mindes of our men, and they were poffeffed with a great miflike, and doubting of any good to be done that way,___


___yet would not our general be difcouraged, but as wel by comfortable fpeeches, of the diuine prouidence, and of Gods louing care ouer his children, out of the fcriptures; as alfo by other good and profitable perfwafions, adding thereto his own cheerfull example, he fo ftirred them vp, to put on a good courage, and to quite themfelues like men, to indure fome fhort extremity, to haue the fpeedier comfort, and a little trouble, to obtaine the greater glory; that euery man was throughly armed with willingneffe, and refolued to fee the vttermoft, if it were poffible, of what good was to be done that way.


The land in that part of America, bearing farther out into the Weft, then we before imagined
, we were neerer on it then wee were aware;___


___and yet the neerer ftill wee came vnto it, the more extremitie of cold did feafe vpon vs. The 5. day of Iune, wee were forced by contrary windef, to run in with the fhoare, which we then firft defcried; and to caft anchor in a bad bay, the beft roade we could for the prefent meete with: where wee were not without fome danger, by reafon of the many extreme gufts, and flawes that beate vpon vs; which if they ceafed and were ftill at any time, immediatly vpon their intermiffion, there followed moft vile, thicke, and ftinking fogges; againft which the fea preuailed nothing, till the gufts of wind againe remoued them, which brought with them, fuch extremity and violence when they came, that there was no dealing or refifting againft them.

___and the further we went, the more the cold increafed vpon vs, Whereupon we thought it beft for that time to feeke the land, and did fo, finding it not mountanous, but lowe plaine land, & clad, and couered ouer with fnowe,___

In this place was no abiding for vs
; and to go further North,the extremity of the cold (which had now vtterly difcouraged our men) would not permit vs:___

__fo that we drewe backe againe without landing___

___and the windf directly bent againft vs, hauing once gotten vs vnder fayle againe, commanded vs to the Southward whether we would or no.___

---From the height of 48. deg. in which now we were, to 38. we found the land by coafting alongft it to bee but low and reafonable plaine: euery hill (whereof we faw many, but none verie high) though it were in Iune, and the Sunne in his neereft approch vnto them being couered with fnow.

The Latitude of the Harborough, or Baye

In 38 deg. 30. min. we fell with a conuenient and fit harborough,___

___till we came within 38. degrees towards the line. In which heigth it pleafed God to fend vs into a faire and good Baye, with a good winde to enter the fame.

___and Iune 17. came to anchor therein: where we continued till the 23. day of Iuly following.The next day after our comming to anchor in the aforefaid harbour,___

In this Baye we ankered,___

The Climate of the Country

___During all which time, notwithftanding it was the height of Summer, and fo neere the Sunne; yet were wee continually vifited with like nipping colds, as we had felt before: infomuch that if violent exercifes of our bodies, and bufie imployment about our neceffarie labours, had not fometimef compeld vs to the contrary, we could very well haue beene contented to haue kept about vs ftill our Winter clothes; yea (had our neceffities fuffered vs) to have kept our beds; neither could we at any time in whole fourteene dayes together, find the aire fo cleare as to be able to take the height of Sunne or ftarre.

The climate observed at North 38degrees in June 1579.

"During all which time, notwithftanding it was the height of Summer, and fo neere the Sunne; yet were wee continually vifited with like nipping colds, as we had felt before: infomuch that if violent exercifes of our bodies, and bufie imployment about our neceffarie labours, had not fometimef compeld vs to the contrary, we could very well haue beene contented to haue kept about vs ftill our Winter clothes; yea (had our neceffities fuffered vs) to have kept our beds." The World Encompassed

Compare the observations of Drake in June, 1579 with those of Cabrillo in March, 1544:

Notes by R. M. Brereton, C. E. from page 23 of his book Question: Did Sir Francis Drake land on any part of the Oregon Coast?, J. H. Gill, Portland, Oregon, 1907

"Juan Rodrigues Cabrillo sailed from the Port de Navidad (modern Port au Prince) of the Island of Haiti, oil the 27th of June, 1542, and reached the coast of California and Oregon in March 1543: he was really the first discoverer of that coast. He coasted it as far north as Lat. 44 deg. He gave the name Mendocino to the cape in honor of his patron who sent him, Mendosa, the first Viceroy of New Spain. He described the mountains around the cape as covered with snow: he placed it in Lat. 40 deg. N., which is very near what it is. He missed finding San Francisco Bay on his first voyage in 1543 and again in his second voyage in 1544. Near the parallel of San Francisco Bay he saw some hills covered with trees, which he called Port of San Martin.

"In Lat. 40 deg. N. Cabrillo met with such extreme cold in March that he had to return south This was 35 years before Drake's voyage through the same latitudes; so that though Drake found the cold so severe in the beginning of June between 43 deg. and 48 deg. latitude, it may be that Greenhow's criticism about the cold experienced is not a just one. It may be that a much colder cycle prevailed in those latitudes in the sixteenth century than what has been known by white men since. It may be that the Japan gulf stream had a more western direction in the sixteenth century, which would have made the coast climate of Oregon and Northern California colder. Earthquakes and alterations therefrom in the level of the ocean bed would probably cause diversions in the general course of this stream."

Note: this climatic period was near one of the three minima of the Little Ice Age.

Note: Cabrillo's latitudes are gererally too high: Monterey at 39°, 36°4' actual.

George Davidson, as head of the Pacific Coast Survey in 1886, maintained that Cabrillo made landfall at N38°31' and named the high wooded shoulder behind Fort Ross Cabo de Pinos, and probably saw King Peak of the Coast range in N40°09'.

Henry R. Wagner made his determination for Pt. Reyes (N38°), where Cabrillo remarked seeing "great Sierras covered with snow."

In his Geographical Memoir Upon Upper California, in Illustration of His Map of Oregon and California, 1848, John Charles Frémont recorded that at Bodega Bay "the winter months make a delightful season--rainy days alternating with mild and calm pleasant weather and pure bright skies--much preferable to the summer, when the fogs and strong northwest winds make the day disagreeably cold."

The Little Ice Age would continue into the last half of the 19th century.

On April 30, 2010, from Sacramento (38° N) some 60 crow-miles from the coast, the entire coast range was observed white with snow from a storm on April 28.

Mark Twain: "The coldest winter I ever spent was a summer [1864] in San Francisco."

And here hauing fo fit occafion, (notwithftanding it may feeme to be befides the purpofe of writing the hiftory of this ourvoyage) we will a little more diligently inquire into the caufef of the continuance of the extreame cold in thefe parts: as alfo into the probabilities or vnlikelihoods of a paffage to be found that way. Neither was it (as hath formerly beene touched) the tenderneffe of our bodies, comming fo lately out of the heate, whereby the poores were opened, that made vs fo fenfible of the colds we here felt: in this refpect, as in many others, we found our God a prouident father, and carefull Phyfitian for vs. We lacked no outward helpef nor inward comforts, to reftore and fortifie nature, had it beene decayed or weakened in vs; neither was there wanting to vs the great experience of our Generall, who had often himfelfe proued the force of the burning Zone; whofe advice alwayef preuailed much to the preferuing of a moderate temper in our conftitutionf: fo that euen after our departure from the heate wee alwayes found our bodies not as fponges, but ftrong and hardened, more able to beare out cold, though we came out of exceffe of heate, then a number of chamber champions could haue beene, who lye on their feather-beds till they go to fea, or rather whole teeth in a temperate aire do beate in their heads, at a cup of cold Sack and fugar by the fire.

And that it was not our tendernes, but the very extremitie of the cold it felfe, that caufed this fenfiblenes in vs, may the rather appeare in that the naturall inhabitants of the place (with whom we had for a long feafon familiar intercourfe, as if to be related) who had neuer beene acquainted with fuch heate; to whom cuftome of cold was as it were a fecond nature: yet vfed to come fhiuering to vs in their warme furres; crowding clofe together body to body, to receiue heate one of another; and fheltring themfelues vnder a lee bancke, if it were poffible; and as often as they could, labouring to fhroude themfelues vnder our garments alfo, to keepe them warme. Befides how vnhandfome and deformed appeared the face of the earth it felfe! fhewing trees without leaues, and the ground without greennes in thofe moneths of Iune and Iuly. The poore birds and foules not daring (as we had great experience to obferue it) not daring fo much as once to arife from their nefts, after the firft egge layed, till it with all the reft be hatched, and brought to fome ftrength of nature, able to helpe it felfe. Onely this recompence hath nature afoorded them, that the heate of their owne bodies being exceeding great, it perfecteth the creature with greater expedition, and in fhorter time then if to be found in many other places.

As for the caufes of this extremity they feeme not to be fo deeply hidden, but that they may at leaft in part be gueffed at: The chiefeft of which we conceiue to be the large fpreading of the Afian and American continent, which (fomewhat Northward of thefe parts) if they be not fully ioyned, yet feeme they to come very neere one to the other. From whofe high and fnow-covered mountaines, the North and North-weft winds (the conftant vifitants of thofe coafts) fend abroad their frozen nimphes, to the infecting of the whole aire with this infufferable fharpneffe: not permitting the Sunne, no not in the pride of his heate, to diffolue that congealed matter and fnow, which they haue breathed out fo nigh the Sunne, and fo many degrees diftant from themfelues. And that the North and North-weft winds are here conftant in Iune and Iuly, as the North wind alone if in Auguft and September; we not onely found it by ourowne experience, but were fully confirmed in the opinion there of, by the continued obferuations of the Spaniards. Hence comef the general fqualidneffe and barrenneffe of the countrie; hence comes it, that in the middeft of their Summer, the fnow hardly departeth euen from their very doores, but if neuer taken away from their hils at all; hence come thofe thicke mifts and moft ftinking fogges, which increafe fo much the more, by how much higher the pole if raifed: wherein a blind pilot if as good as the beft director of a courfe. For the Sunne ftriving to performe his naturall office, in eleuating the vapors out of thefe inferior bodies; draweth neceffarily abundance of moifture out of the fea: but the nipping cold (from the former caufes) meeting and oppofing the Sunnef indeuour, forces him to giue ouerhis work imperfect: and inftead of higher eleuation, to leaue in the loweft region, wandring vpon the face of the earth and waters, as it were a fecond fea: through which its owne beames cannot poffibly pierce, vnleffe fometimes when the fudden violence of the winds doth helpe to fcatter and breake through it, which thing happeneth very feldome, and when it happeneth if of no continuance. Some of our marriners in this voyage had formerly beene at Wardhoufe, in 72. deg. of North latitude: who yet affirmed, that they felt no fuch nipping cold there in the end of Summer, when they departed thence, as they did here in thofe hotteft moneths of Iune and Iuly.

Northern Passage: Conclusion

And alfo from thefe reafons we coniecture; that either there if no paffage at all through thefe Northerne coafts (which if moft likely) or if there be, that yet it if unnauigable. Adde hereunto, that though we fearched the coaft diligently, euen vnto the 48. deg. yet found we not the land, to trend fo much as one point in any place towards the Eaft, but rather running on continually Northweft, as if it went directly to meet with Afia; and euen in that height when we had a franke wind, to haue carried vs through, had there beene a paffage, yet we had a fmooth and calme fea, with ordinary flowing and reflowing, which could not haue beene, had there beene a frete: of which we rather infallibly concluded then coniectured, that there was none. But to returne.

The People of the Country

The next day after our comming to anchor in the aforefaid harbour, the people of the countrey fhewed themfelues; fending off a man with great expedition to vs in a canow. Who being yet but a little from the fhoare, and a great way from our fhip, fpake to vs continually as he came rowing on. And at laft at a reafonable diftance ftaying himfelfe, he began more folemnely a long and tedious oration, after his manner: vfing in the deliuerie thereof, many geftures and fignes; moving his hands, turning his head and body many wayes; and after his oration ended, with great fhew of reuerence and fubmiffion, returned back to fhoare againe. He fhortly came againe the fecond time in like manner, and fo the third time:___

___and the people of the Countrey, hauing their houfes clofe by the waters fide, fhewed themfeues vnto vs,___

___When he brought with him (as a prefent from the reft) a bunch of feathers, much like the feathers of a blacke crow, very neatly and artificially gathered vpon a ftring, and drawne together into a round bundle; being verie cleane and finely cut, and bearing in length an equall proportion one with another; a fpeciall cognizance (as wee afterwardf obferued) which they that guard their kings perfon, weare on their heads. With this alfo he brought a little bafket made of rufhes, and filled with an herbe which they called Tabâh. Both which being tyed to a fhort rodde, he caft into our boate. Our Generall intended to haue recompenced him immediatly with many good things, he would haue beftowed vpon him: but entring into the boate to deliuer the fame, he could not be drawne to recieue them by any meanes: faue one hat, which being caft into the water out of the fhip, he tooke vp (refufing vtterly to meddle with any other thing, though it were vpon a board put off vnto him) and fo prefently made his returne. After which time, our boate could row no way, but wondring at vs as at gods, they would follow the fame with admiration.

___ and fent a prefent to our Generall.___

The 3. day following, viz. the 21. our fhip hauing receiued a leake at fea, was brought to anchor neerer the fhoare, that her goods being landed, fhe might be repaired: but for that we were to preuent any danger, that might chance againft our fafety, our generall firft of all landed his men, with all neceffary prouifion, to build tents and make a fort for the defence of our felues and goods: and that wee might vnder the fhelter of it, with more fafety (what euer fhould befall) end our bufineffe; which when the people of the country perceiued vs doing, as men fet on fire to war, in defence of their countrie, in great haft and companies, with fuch weapons as they had,___


___they came downe vnto vs; ftanding when they drew neere, as men rauifhed in their mindes, with the fight of fuch things as they neuer had feene, or heard of before that time:___

___When they came vnto vs, they greatly wondred at the things that we brought,___

___their errand being rather with fubmiffion and feare to worfhip vs as Gods, then to haue any warre with vs as with mortall men. Which thing as it did partly fhew it felfe at that inftant, fo did it more and more manifeft it felfe afterwards; during the whole time of our abode amongft them. At this time, being willed by fignes to lay from them their bowes and arrowes, they did as they were directed, and fo did all the reft, as they came more and more by companies vnto them, growing in a little while, to a great number both of men and women.


To the intent therefore, that this peace which they themfelues fo willingly fought, might without any caufe of the breach thereof, on our part giuen, be continued; and that wee might with more fafety and expedition, end our bufineffes in quiet;___


___ our Generall with all his company, vfed all meanes poffible, gently to intreate them,___

___but our Generall (according to his naturall and accuftomed hunianitie) curteoufly intreated them,___

___beftowing vpon each of them liberally, good and neceffary things to couer their nakedneffe, withall fignifying vnto them, we were no Gods but men, and had neede of fuch things to couer our owne fhame; teaching them to vfe them to the fame ends: for which caufe alfo wee did eate and drinke in their prefence, giuing them to vnderftand, that without that wee could not liue, and therefore were but men as well as they.

___and liberally beftowed on them neceffary things to couer their nakedneff,___

Notwithftanding nothing could perfwade them, nor remoue that opinion, which they had conceiued of vs, that wee fhould be Gods.

___whereupon they fuppofed us to be gods, and would not be perfwaded to the contrarie: the prefents which they fent to our Generall were feathers, and cals of networke.

In recompence of thofe things which they had receiued of vs, as fhirts linnen cloth, &c. they beftowed vpon our generall, and diuerfe of our company, diuerfe things, as feathers, cawles of networke, the quiuers of their arrowes made of fawne-fkins, and the very fkins of beafts that their women wore vpon their bodies. Hauing thus had their fill of this times vifiting and beholding of vs, they departed with ioy to their houfes,___

Their Houses

___which houfes are digged round within the earth, and have from the vppermoft brimmef of the circle, clefts of wood fet vp, and ioyned clofe together at the top, like our fpires on the fteeple of a Church:___

Their houfes are digged round about with earth, and haue from the uttermoft brimmes of the circle, clifts of wood fet vpon them, ioyning clofe together at the toppe like a fpire fteeple___

___ which being couered with earth, fuffer no water to enter, and are very warme,___

___which by reafon of that clofenes are very warme.

___ the doore in the moft part of them, performes the office alfo of a chimney, to let out the fmoake: its made in bigneffe and fafhion, like to an ordinary fcuttle in a fhip, and ftanding flopewife:

their beds are the hard ground, onely with rufhes ftrewed vpon it, and lying round about the houfe, haue their fire in the middeft,___

Their beds is the ground with rufhes ftrowed on it, and lying about the houfe, haue the fire in the middeft.

___which by reafon that the houfe if but low vaulted, round and clofe, giueth a maruelous reflexion to their bodies to heate the fame.

Their Clothing

Their men for the moft part goe naked, the women take a kinde of bulrufhes, and kembing it after the manner of hempe, make themfelues thereof a loofe garment, which being knitte about their middles, hanges downe about their hippes, and fo affordes to them a couering of that, which nature teaches fhould be hidden: about their fhoulders they weare alfo the fkin of a deere, with the haire vpon it. They are very obedient to their hufbands, and exceeding ready in all feruices: yet of them felues offering to do nothing, without the confents, or being called of the men.

The men goe naked, the women take bulrufhes, and kembe them after the manner of hempe, and thereof make their loofe garments, which being knit about their middles, hang downe about their hippes, hauing alfo about their fhoulders, a fkinne of Deere, with the haire upon it. Thefe women are very obedient and feruiceable to their hufbands.

As foone as they were returned to their houfes,
they began amongft themfelues a kind of moft lamentable weeping & crying out; which they continued alfo a great while together, in fuch fort, that in the place where they left vs (being neere about 3. quarters of an Englifh mile diftant from them) we very plainely, with wonder and admiration did heare the fame: the women efpecially, extending their voices, in a moft miferable and dolefull manner of fhreeking.

After they were departed from vs,

Drake's Encampment

Notwithftanding this humble manner of prefenting them felues, and awfull demeanour vfed towards vs, we thought it no wifedome too farre to truft them (our experience of former Infidels dealing with vs before, made vs carefull to prouide againft an alteration of their affections, or breach of peace if it fhould happen) and therefore with all expedition we fet vp our tents, and entrenched our felues with walls of ftone: that fo being fortified within our felues, we might be able to keepe off the enemie (if they fhould fo prove) from comming amongft vs without our good wills: this being quickly finifhed we went the more cheerfully and fecurely afterward, about our other bufineffe.


Againft the end of two daies (during which time they had not againe been with vs) there was gathered together a great affembly of men, women, and children (inuited by the report of them which firft faw vs, who as it feemes, had in that time, of purpofe difperfed themfelues into the country, to make knowne the newes) ___


___who came now the fecond time vnto vs, bringing with them as before had beene done, feathers and bagges of Tabáh for prefents, or rather indeed for facrifices, vpon this perfwafion that we were Gods.

___they came and uifited vs the fecond time, and brought with them feathers and bags of Tabacco for prefents:___

When they came to the top of the hill, at the bottome whereof wee had
built our fort, they made a ftand; where one (appointed as their chiefe fpeaker) wearied both vs his hearers, and himfelfe too, with a long and tedious oration:___

___ And when they came to the top of the hill (at the bottome whereof we had pitched our tents) they ftaied themfelues: where one appointed for fpeaker, wearied himfelfe with making a long oration,___

___deliuered with ftrange and violent geftures, his voice being extended to the vttermoft ftrength of nature, and his words falling fo thick one in the neck of another, that he could hardly fetch his breath againe: as foone as he had concluded, all the reft, with a reuerend bowing of their bodies (in a dreaming manner, and long producing of the fame) cryed Oh: thereby giuing their confents, that all was very true which he had fpoken, and that they had vtered their minde by his mouth vnto vs;___


___which done, the men laying downe their bowes vpon the hill, and leauing their women and children behinde them, came downe with their prefents; in fuch fort, as if they had appeared before a God indeed: thinking themfelues happy, that they might have acceffe vnto our generall, but much more happy, when they fawe that he would reciue at their hands, thofe things which they fo willingly had prefented: and no doubt, they thought themfelues neereft vnto God, when they fate or ftood next to him:___

___ which done, they left their bowes vpon the hill, and came downe with their prefents.

___In the meane time the women, as if they had beene defperate, vfed vnnaturall violence againft themfelues, crying and fhreeking piteoufly, tearing their flefh with their nails from their cheekes, in a monftrous manner, the blood ftreaming downe along their brefts; befides defpoiling the vpper parts of their bodies, of thofe fingle couerings they formerly had, and holding their hands aboue their heads, that they might not refcue their brefts from harme, they would with furie caft themfelues vpon the ground, neuer refpecting whether it were cleane or foft, but dafhed themfelues in this manner on hard ftones, knobby, hillocks, ftocks of wood, and pricking bufhes, or what euer elfe lay in their way, itterating the fame courfe againe and againe: yea women great with child, fome nine or ten times each, and others holding out till 15. or 16. times (till their ftrengths failed them) exercifed this cruelty againft themfelues: A thing more grieuous for vs to fee, or fuffer could we haue holpe it, then trouble to them (as it feemed) to do it.


In the meane time, the women remaining on the hill, tormented themfelues lamentably, tearing their flefh from their cheekes, whereby -,we perceiued that they were about a facrifice. ___

This bloudie facrifice (againft our wils) beeing thus performed, our Generall with his companie in the prefence of thofe ftrangers fell to prayers: and by fignes in lifting vp our eyes and hands to heauen, fignified vnto them, that that God whom we did ferue, and whom they ought to worfhip, was aboue: Befeeching God if it were his good pleafure to open by fome meanes their blinded eyes; that they might in due time be called to the knowledge of him the true and eurliuing God, and of Iufuss Chrift whom he hath fent, the faluation of the Gentiles. In the time of prayers, finging of Pfalmes, and reading of certaine Chapters in the Bible, they fate very attentiuley: and obferuing the end at every paufe, with one voice cryed, Oh, greatly reioycing in our exercifes. Yea they tooke fuch pleafure in our finging of Pfalmes, that whenfoeuer they reforted to vs, their firft requeft was commonly this, Gnaáh, by which they intreated that we would fing.


In the meane time, our Generall, with his companie, went to praier, and to reading of the Scriptures, at which exercife they were attentiue, & feemed greatly to be affected with it:___

Our General hauing now beftowed vpon them diuers things, at their departure they reftored them all againe; none carrying with him any thing of whatfoeuer hee had recieued, thinking themfelues fufficiently enriched and happie, that they had found fo free acceffe to fee vs.

___ but when they were come vnto vs, they reftored againe vnto vs thofe things which before we beftowed vpon them.

Againft the end of three daies more (the newes hauing the while fpread it felfe farther, and as it feemed a great way vp into the countrie) were affembled the greateft number of people, which wee could reafonably imagine, to dwell within any conuenient diftance round about.___

The newes of our being there, being fpread through the Countrey, the people that inhabited round about came downe,___

___Amongft the reft, the king himfelfe, a man of goodly ftature and comely perfonage, attended with his guard, of about 100. tall and warlike men, this day, viz. Iune 26. came downe to fee vs.

___and amongft them the King himfelfe, a man of goodly ftature, & comely perfonage, with many other tall, and warlike men:___

Before his comming, were fent two Embaffadors or meffengers to our General, to fignifie that their
Hióh, that if, their king was comming and at hand. They in the deliuery of their meffage, the one fpake with a foft and low voice, prompting his fellow; the other pronounced the fame word by word after him, with a voice more audible: continuing their proclamation (for fuch it was) about halfe an houre. Which being ended, they by fignes made requeft to our Generall, to fend fomething by their hands to their Hióh or king, as a token that his comming might be in peace. Our Generall willingly fatiffied their defire; and they, glad men, made fpeedy returne to their Hióh. Neither was it long before their king (making as princely a fhew as poffibly he could) with all his traine came forward.

___before whofe comming were fent two Ambaffadors to our Generall, to fignifie that their King was comming, in doing of which meffage, their fpeech was continued about halfe an howre. This ended, they by fignes requefted our Generall to fend fome thing by their hand to their King, as a token that his coniming might be in peace: wherein our Generall having fatiffied them, they returned with glad tidings to their King, who marched to vs with a princely maieftie, the people crying continually after their manner, and as they drewc neere vnto vs, fo did they ftriue to behaue themfelues in their actions with comelines.

In their comming forwards they cryed continually after a finging manner with a luftie courage. And as they drew neerer and neerer towards vs, fo did they more and more ftriue to behaue themfelues with a certaine comelineffe and grauity in all their actions.


In the forefront came a man of a large body and goodly afpect, bearing the Septer or royal mace (made of a certaine kind of blacke wood, and in length about a yard and a halfe) before the king. Whereupon hanged two crownes, a bigger and a leffe, with three chaines of a maruellous length, and often doubled; befides a bagge of the herbe Tabáh. The crownes were made of knitworke, wrought vpon moft curioufly with feathers of diuers colours, very artificially placed, and of a formal fafhion:

In the fore front was a man of a goodly perfonage, who bare the fcepter, or mace before the King, whereupon hanged two crownes, a leffe and a bigger, with three chaines of a maruelous length: the crownes were made of knit worke wrought artificially with fethers of diuers colours:___

The chaines feemed of a bony fubftance: euery link or part thereof being very little, thinne, moft finely burnifhed, with a hole pierced through the middeft. The number of linkes going to make one chaine, if in a manner infinite:___

___the chaines were made of a bonie fubftance,___

___but of fuch eftimation it is amongft them, that few be the perfons that are admitted to weare the fame: and euan they to whom itf lawfull to vfe them, yet are ftinted what number they fhall vfe; as fome ten, fome twelue, fome twentie, and as they exceed in number of chaines, fo are they thereby knowne to be the more honorable perfonages.

___and few be the perfons among them that are admitted to weare them: and of that number alfo the perfons are ftinted, as fome ten, fome 12. etc.___

Next vnto him that bare this Scepter, was the king himfelfe with his guard about him: His attire vpon his head was a cawle of knitworke, wrought vpon fomewhat like the crownes, but differing much both in fafhion and perfectneffe of worke; vpon his fhoulders he had on a coate of the fkins of conies, reaching to his waft: His guard alfo had each coats of the fame fhape, but of other fkins: fome hauing cawles likewife ftucke with feathers, or couered ouer with a certaine downe, which groweth vp in the countrey vpon an herbe much like our lectuce; which exceeds any other downe in the world for fineneffe, and beeng layed vpon their cawles by no winds can be remoued: Of fuch eftimation if this herbe amongft them, that the downe thereof if not lawfull to be worne, but of fuch perfons as are about the king (to whom alfo it if permitted to weare a plume of feathers on their heads, in fign of honour) and the feeds are not vfed but onely in facrifice to their gods.___

___Next vnto him which bare the fcepter, was the King himfelfe, with his Garde about his perfon,___

___ clad with Conie fkins, & other fkins:___

The Greate Hi-oh.
"Frontispiece to Ye Preposterous Booke of Brasse, published by E. Clampus Vitus (don't bother tying to translate) in 1937, designed and printed by Lawton Kennedy in SF.
The caption: "The Greate Hi-oh. Facsimile (much reduced) of a drawing on the wall of a cave discovered during excavation for the new wing of the prison at Point San Quentin." (in SF Bay)

___After thefe in their order, did follow the naked fort of common people; whofe hair being long, was gathered into a bunch behind, in which ftucke plumes of feathers, but in the forepart onely fingle feathers like hornes, euery one pleafing himfelfe in his owne deuice.

___after them followed the naked comon fort of people,___

This one thing was obferued to bee generall amongft them all; that euery one had his face painted, fome with white, fome blacke, and fome with other colours, euery man alfo bringing in his hand one thing or other for a gift or prefent: Their traine or laft part of their company confifted of women and children, each woman bearing againft her breaft a round bafket or two, hauing within them diuerf thingf, as bagges of Tobâh, a roote which they call Petáh, whereof they make a kind of meale, and either bake it into bread, or eate it raw; broyled fifhes like a pilchard; the feed and downe aforenamed, with fuch like:

___euery one hauing his face painted, fome with white, fome with blacke, and other colours & hauing in their handes one thing or another for a prefent, not fo much as their childre, but they alfo brought their prefents.

Their bafkets were made in fafhion like a deepe boale, and though the matter were rufhes, or fuch other kind of fluffe, yet was it fo cunningly handled, that the moft part of them would hold water; about the brimmes they were hanged with peeces of the fhels of pearles, and in fome places with two or three linkes at a place, of the chaines forenamed: thereby fignifying, that they were veffels wholly dedicated to the onely vfe of the gods they worfhipped: and befides this, they were wrought vppon with the matted downe of red feathers, diftinguifhed into diuerf worke and forme.

In the meane time our Generall hauing affembled his men together (as forecafting the danger, and worft that might fall out) prepared himfelfe to ftand vpon fure ground, that wee might at all timef be ready in our owne defence, if any thing fhould chance otherwife then was looked for or expected.

In the meane time, our Generall gathered his men together, and marched within his fenced place, making againft their approching, a very warlike fhewe.___

Wherefore euery man being in a warlike readineffe, he marched within his fenced place, making againft their approach a moft warlike fhew (as he did alfo at all other times of their refort) whereby if they had beene defperate enemies, they could not haue chofen but haue conceiued terrour and feare, with difcouragement to attempt any thing againft vs, in beholding of the fame.


When they were come fomewhat neere vnto vs, trooping together, they gaue vs a common or a generall falutation: obferuing in the meane time a generall filence.___

___They being trooped together in their order, and a general falutation being made, there was prefently a generall filence.

___Whereupon he who bare the Scepter before the king, being prompted by another whom the king affigned to that office, pronounced with an audible and manly voice, what the other fpake to him in fecret: continuing, whether it were his oration or proclamation, at the leaft halfe an houre. At the clofe whereof, there was a common Amen, in figne of approbation giuen by euery perfon: And the king himfelfe with the whole number of men and women (the little children onely remaining behind) came further downe the hill, and as they came fet themfelues againe in their former order.

Then he that bare the fcepter before the King, being informed by another, whome they affigned to that office, with a manly and loftie voice, proclaimed that which the other fpake to him in fecret, continuing halfe an howre: which ended, and a generall Amen as it were giuen, the King with the whole number of men, and women (the children excepted) came downe without any weapon, who defcending to the foote of the hill, fet themfelues in order.

And being now come to the foot of the hill and neere our fort, the Scepter bearer with a compofed countenance and ftately carriage began a fong, and anfwerable thereunto, obferued a kind of meafures in a dance: whom the king with his guard and euery other fort of perfon following, did in like manner fing and daunce, fauing onely the women who danced but kept filence. As they danced they ftill came on:___

In comming towards our bulwarks and tents, the fcepter bearer began a fong, obferuing his meafures in a daunce, and that with a ftately countenance, whom the King with his Garde, and euery degree of perfons following, did in like manner fing and daunce, fauing only the women which daunced, & kept filence.

___and our Generall perceiuing their plaine and fimple meaning,gave order that they might freely enter without interruption within our bulwarke: Where after they had entred they yet continued their fong and dance a reafonable time: their women alfo following them with their waffaile boales in their hands, their bodies bruifed, their faces torne, their dugges, breafts, and other partf befpotted with bloud, trickling downe from the wounds, which with their nailes they had made before their comming.

The Generall permitted them to enter within our bulwarks, where they continued their fong and daunce a reafonable time.___

Drake Crowned King

After that they had fatiffied or rather tired themfelues in this manner, they made fignes to our Generall to have him fit down; Vnto whom both the king and diuers others made feuerall orations, or rather indeed if wee had vnderftood them, fupplications, that hee would take the Prouince and kingdome into his hand, and become their king and patron: making fignes that they would refigne vnto him their right and title in the whole land, and become his vaffals in themfelues and their pofterities:___

___When they had fatiffied themfelues, they made fignes to our General to fit downe, to whom the King, and divers others made feueral orations, or rather fupplications, that he would take their prouince & kingdome into his hand, and become their King, making fignes that they would refigne vnto him their right and title of the whole land, and become his fubiects.___

___Which that they might make vs indeed beleeue that it was their true meaning and intent; the king himfelfe with all the reft with one confent, and with great reuerence, ioyfully finging a fong, fet the crowne vpon his head; inriched his necke with all their chaines; and offering vnto him many other things, honoured him by the name of Hióh. Adding thereunto (as it might feeme) a fong and dance of triumph: becaufe they were not onely vifited of the gods (for fo they ftill iudged vs to be) but the great and chiefe god was now become their god, their king and patron, and themfelues were become the onely happie and bleffed people in all the world.

___ In which, to perfwade vs the better, the King and the reft, with one confent, and with great reuerence, joyfully finging a fong, did fet the crowne vpon his head, inriched his necke with all their chaines, and offred vnto him many other things, honouring him by the name of Hioh, adding thereunto as it feemed, a figne of triumph: which thing our Generall thought not meete to reiect, becaufe he knewe not what honour and profite it might be to our Countrey.___

Thefe things being fo freely offered, our Generall thought not meet to reiect or refufe the fame: both for that he would not giue them any caufe of miftruft, or difliking of him (that being the onely place, wherein at this prefent, we were of neceffitie inforced to feeke reliefe of many thingf) and chiefely, for that he knew not to what good end God had brought this to paffe, or what honour and profit it might bring to our countrie in time to come.

"Feather Crown of Hawk's Feathers" drawn by Captain James Colnett at Campbell Cove, Bodega Bay, in 1790.

Wherefore in the name and to the vfe of her moft excellent maiefty, he tooke the fcepter crowne and dignity, of the fayd countrie into his hand; wifhing nothing more, then that it had layen fo fitly for her maiefty to enioy, as it was now her proper owne, and that the riches and treafures thereof (wherewith in the vpland countrief it abounds) might with as great conueniency be tranfported, to the enriching of her kingdome here at home, as it if in plenty to be attained there: and efpecially, that fo tractable and louing a people, as they fhewed themfelues to be, might haue meanes to haue manifefted their moft willing obedience the more vnto her, and by her meanes, as a mother and nurfe of the Church of Chrift, might by the preaching of the Gofpell, be brought to the right knowledge, and obedience of the true and euerliuing God.

___Wherefore in the name, and to the vfe of her Maieftie, he tooke the fcepter, crowne, and clignitle of the faid Countrey into his hands, wifhing that the riches & treafure thereof might fo conueniently be tranfported to the inriching of her kingdome at home, as it aboundeth in ye fame.

The ceremonies of this refigning, and receiuing of the kingdome being thus performed,___

___the common fort both of men and women, leauing the king and his guard about him, with our generall, difperfed themfelues among our people, taking a diligent view or furuey of euery man; and finding fuch as pleafed their fancies (which commonly were the youngeft of vs) they prefently enclofing them about, offered their facrifices vnto them, crying out with lamentable fhreekes and moanes, weeping, and fcratching, and tearing their very flefh off their faces with their nailes, neither were it the women alone which did this, but euen old men, roaring and crying out, were as violent as the women were.

The common forte of people leaning the King, and his Garde with our Generall, fcattered themfelues together with their facrifices among our people, taking a diligent viewe of euery perfon: and fuch as pleafed their fancie, (which were the yongeft) they inclofing them about offered their facrifices vnto them with lamentable weeping, fcratching, and tearing the flefh from their faces with their nailes, whereof iffued abundance of bloode.___

We groaned in fpirit to fee the power of Sathan fo farre preuaile, in feducing thefe fo harmeleffe foulef, and laboured by all meanef, both by fhewing our great diflike, and when that ferued not, by violent___


___withholding of their hands from that madnefs, directing them (by our eyes and hands lift vp towards heauen) to the liuing God whom they ought to ferue:___

___But wee vfed fignes to them of difliking this, and ftaied their hands from force, and directed them vpwards to the liuing God, whome onely they ought to worfhippe,___

___ but fo mad were they vpon their Idolatry, that forcible withholding them would not prevaile (for as foone as they could get liberty to their hands againe, they would be as violent as they were before) till fuch time, as they whom they worfhipped, were conueyed from them into the tents, whom yet as men befides themfelues, they would with fury and outrage feeke to haue againe.


After that time had a little qualified their madnefs,___

___they then began to fhew & make knowne vnto vs their griefes and difeafes which they carried about them, fome of them hauing old aches, fome fhruncke finewes, fome old foares and canckred vlcers, fome wounds more lately receiued, and the like, in moft lamentable manner crauing helpe and cure thereof from vs:___

___They fhewed vnto vs their wounds,___

___making fignes, that if we did but blowe vpon their griefes, or but touched the difeafed places, they would be whole.

___and craued helpe of them at our hands,___

Their griefes we could not but take pitty on them, and to our power defire to helpe them: but that (if it pleafed God to open their eyes) they might vnderftand we were but men and no gods,___


___we vfed ordinary meanes, as lotions, emplaifters, and vnguents moft fitly (as farre as our fkills could gueffe) agreeing to the natures of their griefes, befeeching God, if it made for his glory, to giue cure to their difeafes by thefe meanes. The like we did from time to time as they reforted to vs.

___whereupon wee gaue them lotions, plaifters, and ointments agreeing to the ftate of their griefes, befeeching God to cure their difeafes.___

Few were the days, wherein they were abfent from vs, during the whole time of our abode in that place: and___


___ordinarily euery third day, they brought their facrifices, till fuch time, as they certainely vnderftood our meaning, that we tooke no pleafure, but were difpleafed with them: whereupon their zeale abated, and their facrificing, for a feafon, to our good liking ceafed; notwithftanding they continued ftill to make their refortvnto vs in great abundance, and in fuch fort, that they oft-timefforgate, to prouide meate for their owne fuftenance; fo that our generall (of whom they made account as of a father) waffaine to performe the office of a father to them, relieuing them with fuch victualls, as we had prouided for our feluef, as, Mufcles, Seales, and fuch like, wherein they tooke exceeding much content; and feeling that their facrifices were difpleafing to vs, yet (hating ingratitude) they fought to recompence vs, with fuch things as they had, which they willingly inforced vpon vs, though it were neuer fo neceffarie or needfull for themfelues to keepe.

___Euery thirde day they brought their facrifices vnto vs, vntill they vnderftoode our meaning, that we had no pleafure in them: yet they could not be long abfent from us, but daily frequented our companie to the houre of our departure, which departure feemed fo greeuous vnto them, that their ioy was turned into forrow. They intreated vs, that being abfent we would remember them, and by ftelth prouided a facrifice, which we mifliked.

They are a people of a tractable, free, and louing nature, without guile or treachery; their bowes and arrowes (their only weapons, and almoft all their wealth) they vfe very fkillfully, but yet not to do any great harme with them, being by reafon of their weakeneffe, more fit for children then for men, fending the arrow neither farre off, nor with any great force: and yet are the men commonly fo ftrong of body, that that, which 2. or 3. of our men could hardly beare, one of them would take vpon his backe, and without grudging carrie it eafily away, vp hill and downe hill an Englifh mile together: they are alfo exceeding fwift in running, and of long continuance; the vfe whereof if fo familiar with them, that they feldome goe, but for the moft part runne. One thing we obferued in them with admiration: that if at any time, they chanced to fee a fifh, fo neere the fhoare, that they might reach the place without fwimming, they would neuer, or very feldome miffe to take it.


After that our neceffary bufineffes were well difpatched, our generall with his gentlemen, and many of his company, made a iourney vp into the land, to fee the manner of their dwelling, and to be the better acquainted, with the nature and commodities of the country. Their houfes were all fuch as wee haue formerly defcribed, and being many of them in one place, made feuerall villages here and there. The inland we found to be farre different from the fhoare, a goodly country, and fruitfull foyle, ftored with many bleffingf fit for the vfe of man:___

Our neceffarie bufines being ended, our Generall with his companie trauiled vp into the Countrey to their villages,___

___infinite was the company of very large and fat Deere, which there we fawe by thoufands, as we fuppofed, in a heard:___

___where we found heardes of Deere by 1000. in a companie, being.moft large, and fat of bodie.

___ befides a multitude of a ftrange kinde of Conies, by far exceeding them in number: their heads and bodies, in which they refemble other Conies, are but fmall; his tayle like the tayle of a Rat, exceeding long; and his feet like the paws of a Want or Moale; vnder his chinne, on either fide, he hath a bagge, into which he gathereth his meate, when he hath filled his belly abroade, that he may with it, either feed his young, or feed himfelfe, when he lifts not to trauaile from his burrough: the people eate their bodies, and make great account of their fkinnes, for their kings holidaies coate was made of them.

We found the whole Countrey to be a warren of a ftrange kinde of Connies, their bodies in bignes as be the Barbarie Connies, their heads as the heads of ours, the feete of a Want, and the taile of a Rat being of great length: vnder her chinne on either fide a bagge, into the which fhe gathereth her meate, when fhe hath filled her bellie abroad. The people eate their bodies, and make great accompt of their fkinnes, for their Kings coate was made of them.

This country our generall named
Albion, and that for two caufes; the one in refpect of the white bancks and cliffes, which lie toward the fea: the other, that it might haue fome affinity, euen in name alfo, with our owne country, which was fometime fo called.

Our Generall called this Countrey, Noua Albion, and that for two caufes: the one in refpect of the white bankes and cllffes, which he towards the fea: and the other, becaufe it might haue fome affinitie with our Countrey in name, which fometime was fo called.

There if no part of earth here to be taken vp, wherein there if not a reafonable quantitie of gold or filuer.

Before we went from thence, our generall caufed to be fet vp, a monument of our being there; as alfo of her maiefties, and fucceffors right and title to that kingdome, namely, a plate of braffe, faft nailed to a great and firme poft; whereon is engrauen her graces name, and the day and yeare of our arriuall there and of the free giuing vp, of the prouince and kingdome, both by the king and people, into her maiefties hands: together with her highneffe picture, and armes in a piece of fixpence currant Englifh monie, fhewing it felfe by a hole made of purpofe through the plate: vnderneath was likewife engrauen the name of our generall &c.

At our departure hence our General fet vp a monument of our being there, as alfo of her Maiefties right and title to the fame, namely a plate, nailed vpon a faire great pofte, whereupon was ingrauen her Maiefties name, the day and yeare of our arriuall there, with the free giuing vp of the prouince and people into her Maiefties hands, together with her highnes picture and armef, in a pecce of fixe pence of currant Englifh money vnder the plate, where vnder was alfo written the name of our Generall.

The Spaniards neuer had any dealing, or fo much as fet a foote in this country; the vtmoft of their difcoueries, reaching onely to many degrees Southward of this place.

It feemeth that the Spaniards hitherto had neuer bene in this part of the Countrey, neither did euer difcouer the lande by many degrees, to the Southwards of this place.

And now, as the time of our departure was perceiued by them to draw nigh, fo did the forrowes and miferies of this people, feeme to themfelues to increafe vpon them; and the morecertaine they were of our going away, the more doubtfull they fhewed themfelues what they might doe; fo that we might eafily iudge that that ioy (being exceeding great) wherewith they recieued vs at our firft arriuall, was cleane drowned in their exceffiue forrow for our departing: For they did not onely loofe on a fudden all mirth, ioy, glad countenance, pleafant fpeeches, agility of body, familiar reioycing one with another, and all pleafure what euer flefh and bloud might bee delighted in, but with fighes and forrowings with heauy hearts and grieued mindf, they powred out wofull complaintf and moanes, with bitter teares and wringing of their hands, tormenting themfelues. And as men refufing all comfort, they onely accounted themfelues as caft-awayes, and thofe whom the gods were about to forfake: So that nothing we could fay or do, was able to eafe them of their fo heauy a burthen, or to deliuer them from fo defparate a ftraite, as our leauing of them did feeme to them that it would caft them into.


Howbeit feeing they could not ftill enioy our prefence, they (fuppofing vs to be gods indeed) thought it their duties to intreate vs that being abfent, we would yet be mindfull of them, and making fignes of their defires, that in time to come wee would fee them againe, they ftole vpon vs a facrifice, and fet it on fire erre we were aware; burning therein a chaine and a bunch of feathers. We laboured by all meanes poffible to withhold or withdraw them but could not preuaile, till at laft we fell to prayers and finging of Pfalmes, whereby they were allured immediatly to forget their folly, and leaue their facrifice vnconfumed, fuffering the fire to go out, and imitating vs in all our actions; they fell a lifting vp their eyes and hands to heauen as they faw vs do.

The 23. of Iuly they took a forrowfull farewell of vs, but being loath to leaue vs, they prefently ranne to the tops of the hils to keepe vs in their fight as long as they could, making fires before and behind, and on each fide of them, burning therein (as is to be fuppofed) sacrifices at our departure.

The Farralons

Not farre without this harbourrough did lye certain Islands (we called them the Islands of Saint Iames) having on them pleantyfull and great ftore of Seales and birds, with one of which wee fell Iuly 24. Wheron we found fuch prouifion as might completely, ferve our turne for a while. We departed againe the day next following, viz. Iuly 25.___


___And out General now confidering, that the extremity of the cold not only continued but increafed, the Sunne being gone farther from vs, and that the wind blowing ftill (as it did at firft) from the Northweft, cut off all hope of finding a paffage through thefe Northerne parts, thought if neceffarie to loofe no time, and therefore with generall confent of all, bent his courfe directly to runne with the Islands of the Moluccas.


Copyright © January 1999 by Bob Graham
The Library of Congress TX 5-606-271